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Police said Walker, a handyman and aspiring musician, felt Kelly owed him money, so he went room by room through his homes, selling off furniture, furnishings and memorabilia, including a diamond encrusted hoodie.Sep 29, 2005, 03:15am EDT”Licensees must act honestly and with reasonable care and skill. Mr. Guo’s actions show that he failed to do this, contravening” real estate rules, declared the council in a written summary posted online Tuesday.I remember ordering takeout, but never dined in. On this night, we stopped in the bar section and saw many local faces. An area plumber, a friend dad and some other familiar looking folks were passing time and counting down the remaining days of their favorite place.The Housing Solutions Center is an expansion of existing county efforts. In November 2012, the Affordable Housing Department used a federal grant to refurbish a 24 unit apartment building in north Tampa. Renamed Cypress Landing, the housing project is administered by Mental Health Care Inc., which provides counseling and other services.
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By the “Roaring ’20s,” the consumer economy that started around the turn of the century was flourishing, and a mass market was in the making. workforce earned $2,000 or more a year, and the six day workweek was reduced to five. People had free time and could take vacations. There was money to spend and advertisements, appearing in newspapers and magazines, described what to buy, why and where.

One example of the rise of popular media during the 1920s is Time magazine. Messrs. Luce and Hadden were the first publishers after World War I to break away from past models of general interest magazines and offer something radically new news and information. Brevity was key to the format, separating the publication from other weeklies. Time was also distinctive in its focus on news rather than commentary. and Europe.

The technology of voice broadcasting had been developed more than 25 years earlier. It was during the 1920s, however, that radio became the mass communication technology it is today, growing out of a combination of institutional and technological innovations and individual ideas. Although the Netherlands claims the first radio broadcast in 1919, information was already being transmitted via radio in England, Germany and France. through a combination of factors, including economic depression, the influence of corporations, urbanization, electrification and the recognition of production, consumption and distribution. had just recovered from 25 years of wild economic fluctuations, economic depressions, an unusual amount of concentration of corporate wealth, political turmoil and labor unrest. Radio entered this arena at a time when a handful of major corporations were becoming increasingly powerful and consolidation of ownership was once again on the rise.

In the early 1920s, radio listeners were regarded as hobbyists a subculture that found amusement and relaxation tinkering with crystal sets and

listening was considered simply a pastime.

David Sarnoff, the founder of Radio Corp. of America, is generally credited with taking radio into the mainstream of American life. A former wireless operator, Mr. Sarnoff recognized that radio’s financial potential depended on its being thought of as a household appliance.

He oversaw the introduction of the “Radiola” by American Marconi (later RCA) in 1922. The first Radiolas sold for $75, a hefty sum in those days, but a price within reach of America’s burgeoning middle class. First year sales were $11 million; by 1925, sales totaled more than $60 million.

Despite widespread interest, many people considered radio to be in poor taste and a waste of resources. To them, radio was the technological manifestation of society’s ills, a symbol of modernity and creeping consumerism as well as a threat to traditional family values. A 1922 article in the advertising trade journal Printers’ Ink warned that “the family circle is not a public place, and advertising has no business intruding there unless it is invited.”

Radio was viewed as a particularly intrusive nuisance by the newspaper industry, which felt that radio infringed on the formerly undisputed role of newspapers as the purveyor of daily information and entertainment in the home.

In the early 1920s, few gave any thought to the financing of radio stations. Early stations such as KDKA in Pittsburgh were not expensive to run. Frank Conrad, chief engineer at Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing, began his radio career by sending signals from his garage. From his makeshift station designated 8XK, then KDKA), Mr. Conrad sent music from borrowed phonograph records, and his popular musical broadcasts caught on. Listeners began asking for a wider variety of entertainment and for longer broadcasts. Professional talent was in demand, and that required money. By 1925, funding reached the crisis stage. The Chicago Federation of Labor established WCFL. The Chicago Tribune had WGN (for “world’s greatest newspaper”). Department stores, churches and governments saw radio as a way of putting themselves before the public as “public service.” Overall, the consensus was that radio should be privately owned and that advertising should be kept out at all costs.

Direct advertising, or the purchase of time from a station for the presentation of commercial messages, was the financing strategy that won out. Concerns over an ad supported model were shared not only by the general public but also by the newspaper industry, where advertising was considered to be in opposition to the public service model of radio.

Radio advertising enters the mainstream

In 1922, American Telephone Telegraph Co. established WEAF in New York as a “toll station.” Under the toll model, people who had something to broadcast paid to do so, just as telephone time was sold.

AT treated its investment in radio as a public service effort. At first, WEAF management stated that it would provide no material of its own, but it soon realized few were likely to pay a toll to broadcast on the radio. For the first six months in fact, no one stepped forward. on Aug. 24, 1922. It was for the Queensboro Corp., which paid $50 for a 10 minute message promoting the sale of apartments in Queens, New York. The announcement was repeated four times, and an additional half hour of evening programming was purchased. Several apartments were sold as a result, and direct advertising was pronounced a success.

One month later, two more companies broadcast messages Tidewater Oil and American Express Co. Macy department store, Greeting Card Association, American Hard Rubber Co., Bedford YMCA, National Surety Co. and Metropolitan Insurance Co.

Station managers, politicians and other public officials were concerned that radio advertising could compromise the dignity of the medium. In fact, the pressure brought by potential advertisers and the financial pressures ad revenues relieved led to advertising becoming the primary source of financial support for radio, with the proviso that the advertiser provide the program content in which to place its ad message.

Radio now was positioned as a civilizing force, bringing classical music and famous orchestras into otherwise mundane lives. Proponents of radio claimed that it had the potential to elevate the popular taste. The most obvious example of this view can be found in ads for radio receivers, which showed elegant homes and tastefully decorated rooms where couples in eveningwear listened to the classics.

In 1926, RCA, which already owned WJZ in New York, bought WEAF from AT and formed the National Broadcasting System. That November, NBC launched two separate broadcasting networks, the Red and the Blue, and created its advertising rate cards. Columbia Broadcasting Co. was launched in 1929 when its predecessor was acquired by William Paley.

The power of a single announcer to reach thousands of people was very attractive to product manufacturers and, therefore, to their agencies. households had a radio receiver. A half million were sold during a six month period in 1922. By 1926, one in six households owned a receiver. The novelty of radio, however, began to wear off, and people began searching the dial for content. Radio began to resemble the telephone less and an entertainment medium more.

Station competitiveness truly spurred the commercialization of radio. WEAF was committed to beating rival WJZ in terms of talent and programming. To accomplish that goal, it moved to new offices and bought new equipment. To support those expenses, WEAF created a sales staff to promote the station to potential advertisers.

The new medium of radio presented ad agencies with creative challenges. The purely aural nature of radio brought a new emphasis to words, and initial radio ads were merely segments of airtime filled with promotional messages.

Some agencies experimented with creating programs devoted entirely to a product. However, by 1927 only 20% of radio programs had sponsors. As advertisers began supporting radio, programming picked up. Vaudeville acts, musical variety shows, song and dance teams and comedy acts were brought to the listener by sponsors such as Ever Ready Batteries (“The Ever Ready Battery Hour”) and A grocery stores (“The A Gypsies”).

By 1928, radio had developed into an advertising supported medium and ad agencies became involved with the development of programs that fit the needs and interests of their clients.

Two ad agencies are considered the leaders in early radio advertising: Lord Thomas and J. Walter Thompson Co. L produced the “Lucky

Strike Show,” which by 1935 evolved into “Your Hit Parade,” as well as Pepsodent’s “Amos ‘n’ Andy.” JWT launched several musical variety hits, such as “The Fleischmann Yeast Hour,” which featured Rudy Vallee.
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